Gap Theorists Defended

by David J. Stewart

       The “Gap theory” (or better termed, “Gap Principle”) is NOT a fundamental doctrine of the faith. Nevertheless I am increasingly convinced that it is a matter that needs to be addressed. Many unsaved people with college degrees will not listen to an ignorant believer who claims that dinosaurs roamed the earth 4,500 years ago. It simply didn't happen.

On September 10, 2008, a video of actor Matt Damon was released to the press that quickly got posted on YouTube, and has now gotten over two million hits. Here’s what he said:

I think there’s a really good chance that Sarah Palin could be president, and I think that’s a really scary thing because I don’t know anything about her. I don’t think in eight weeks I’m gonna know anything about her. I know that she was a mayor of a really, really small town, and she’s governor of Alaska for less than two years. I just don’t understand. I think the pick was made for political purposes, but in terms of governance, it’s a disaster. You do the actuary tables, you know, there’s a one out of three chance, if not more, that McCain doesn’t survive his first term, and it’ll be President Palin. And it really, you know, I was talking about it earlier, it’s like a really bad Disney movie, you know, the hockey mom, you know, “I’m just a hockey mom from Alaska”—and she’s the president. And it’s like she’s facing down Vladimir Putin and, you know, using the folksy stuff she learned at the hockey rink, you know, it’s just absurd. It’s totally absurd, and I don’t understand why more people aren’t talking about how absurd it is. I ... it’s a really terrifying possibility.

The fact that we’ve gotten this far and we’re that close to this being a reality is crazy. Crazy. I mean, did she really—I need to know if she really thinks dinosaurs were here 4,000 years ago. That’s an important … I want to know that. I really do. Because she’s gonna have the nuclear codes, you know. I wanna know if she thinks dinosaurs were here 4,000 years ago or if she banned books or tried to ban books. I mean, you know, we can’t have that. [emphasis added]

SOURCE: Matt Damon vs. Sarah Palin and the Dinosaurs - Christian News, Commentary

The blood of Christ, Godhead and the virgin birth are definitely fundamental doctrines of the faith, and so we defend them without apology or compromise. Until recently I hadn't viewed the Gap Principle (Old Earth view) as being a doctrine worth fighting for; but after reading Matt Damon's comment I began to realize that a Young Earth view offends thinking people; not only because it's not plausible, but also because legitimate science confirms from tests performed on actual dinosaur bones that they are very old. In this age of advanced computer forensic science, it is not difficult to determine the age of fossils and skeletons. See: The Bible Teaches An Old Earth; But A Young Human Race

The dinosaur photo to the left is frightening. I simply do NOT believe that God would subject mankind to the merciless appetites of tyrannosauruses. Although recent research has plausibly determined that the T-rex was a slow runner and scavenger rather than a predator, the smaller raptor dinosaurs were undoubtedly fast moving creatures and skilled hunters. Regardless, I've seen Sue the T-rex at Chicago's Field Museum and I would not want to see those teeth close-up when she was alive. No sir! There's a BIG difference between a lion and a giant dinosaur.

Dr. Curtis Hutson goes into detail from a Biblical viewpoint in a 6-part series titled, DEMONOLOGY (available from Sword of the Lord publishers).

I do NOT believe in Theistic Evolution (i.e., the teaching that God created the universe and then it evolved over billions of years). I do NOT believe that anything evolved. I do believe in a literal 6-day creation in Genesis. However, if you study Genesis 1 you'll find that the word “created” (which is absolute in meaning) occurs in Genesis 1:1 and then does appear again until Genesis 1:21 on the fifth day of creation. The word “made” (which is very general in meaning) is used to describe the second, third and fourth days of creation. This is not by chance. Clearly, a distinction is being made in the Bible. The word “create” means God makes something from nothing. Whereas the word “made” means that God remodeled creation which already existed previously.

For a detailed examination of the Hebrew meaning of Genesis 1:1-2, please read...

Without Form And Void (by Arthur C. Custance)

Dr. John R. Rice (1895-1980) who founded the Sword of the Lord rejected the gap theory, yet his successor Curtis Hutson (1934-1995) believed in the gap theory. It is a heated debate concerning an old verses a young earth view.

The following article is well written and very informative. It was written by two Independent Baptist pastors. I agree with them on this issue. I posted the article here on my website for others to read. The only thing I differ on is dinosaurs, I believe they existed before mankind, not during the days of Noah. The following article defends those who believe in the gap theory. I believe that the Bible offers many Scriptures in support of a gap theory.

I've seen some people get really upset emotionally over the Gap Theory debate. This is the theory that there was a pre-Adamic world when dinosaurs roamed the earth, where Lucifer in his anger destroyed the earth; and then God REMODELED the universe as we know it today. The differentiation between the words created and made evidence this fact. And also, the first word “was” in Genesis 1:2 is the Hebrew word “hayah,” which means “to exist, that is, to become, come to pass.” Hence, the earth already existed in Genesis 1:2, and it became without form, and void; and darkness covered the face of the deep.

It can easily be established that recorded civilization only goes back about 6,000 years to 4,004 BC (the Bible dates itself well from creation). History documents the civilizations of mankind, beginning with Egypt as the first world power around 1,500 B.C., then Assyria, Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece and Rome. The flood happened at about 2,345 BC. Much historical evidence was destroyed in the flood. Mankind were writing on stones merely 3,500 years ago, as evidenced by Egyptian hieroglyphics. Did it really take millions of years for humanity to discover paper and ink?

Darkness And The Gap Fact (interesting Bible thoughts about darkness and the Gap Principle)

An Old Earth Verses a Young Earth

Some believers are so zealous against the possibility of a gap between Genesis 1:1 and Genesis 1:2 as to call gap theory advocates “unsaved.” That is very wrong and unscriptural. A “gap principle” does no injustice to the Scriptures; but it does discredit the testimony of Christians who deny the plain evidence of science. There IS MUCH SCIENCE to prove an old earth. It is humanity that has only existed for 6000 years; but the earth has been here for a very long time.

Many Christian scholars have tried to explain the issue of dinosaurs by saying that they existed at the time of Genesis. Dr. Walt Brown of teaches that dinosaurs boarded the Ark. That is ridiculous! Some scholars claim that the word “behemoth” in Job 40:15 may refer to a dinosaur. Job lived at the time of Genesis, before the Law was given to Moses.

We know that our present sun, moon and stars were REMODELED on the fourth day of creation in Genesis. I DON'T believe in theistic evolution, i.e., I don't believe that God created the universe and then it evolved. God created Adam and Eve, highly intelligent and human in every way. God created the universe by intelligent design, as a master watchmaker who meticulously assembles the hundreds of intricate parts into the watch (watch how a $150,000 Swiss watch is handmade). There is no such thing as the “Missing Link,” i.e., a caveman linking a lower form of life and development to intelligent modern man. Man did not evolve. The Neanderthal man never existed!!! Our civilizations have evolved over 6000 years into the modern Industrial Revolution; but man's body and soul have not evolved.

I believe in an old earth, as did Dr. Curtis Hutson (1934-1995). Dr Hutson preached a fascinating Bible study series in the 1970's titled: DEMONOLOGY, available from the SWORD OF THE LORD publishers.

Pastor Max D. Younce also believes in an old earth and has written a compelling book addressing this issue in depth, titled: THE TRUTH ABOUT EVOLUTION OR; DON'T LET SATAN MAKE A MONKEY OUT OF YOU! You can freely read the book online in .PDF format.

Certainly, whether you believe in a young earth or an old earth does NOT have any effect on your salvation. Although some people have been won to the Lord upon hearing a Biblical explanation of how dinosaurs fit in with the Bible. Consider the following powerful statement by Pastor Max D. Younce...

“Should one desire a continued, concentrated study of the years from the flood to the birth of Christ, they would arrive at approximately 2,345 years. Thus, from Adam to Christ is close to the figure of 4,000 years. Add another 2,000 plus from Christ to the present, and you have man on the earth for only 6,000 years. Therefore, the Gap Principle, as documented in Scripture makes evolution an absolute impossibility. The Gap Principle made it possible for me to lead many people to Jesus Christ as their Savior, who had been influenced by the evolutionary philosophy.” [emphasis added]

SOURCE: The Truth About Evolution; Or, Don't Let Satan Make A Monkey Out Of You, by Dr. Max D. Younce.

I absolutely DO believe in a literal 6 day creation in Genesis. There is no debating the plain teachings of the Word of God. But there are many Scriptures that support the idea of an old earth. In Isaiah 14:14 Lucifer said, “I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High.” When was Lucifer below the clouds?” When was Lucifer below the clouds in the Old Testament? Revelation 20:2 identifies the serpent in the Garden Of Eden as Satan (see also Ezekiel 28:13). So Lucifer had already fallen and was Satan in Genesis. I will explain demonology more in detail in the next section.

Dr. Kent Hovind's Heresy On No Sin Before Creation Of Mankind

I love Dr. Hovind as my Christian Brother and I know God is angry at what Florida's courts did to him for refusing a State-license. I just took a look at Eric Hovind's website and they strongly teach Lordship Salvation and a false Gospel of self-righteousness. Dr. Hovind's son has taken over the ministry and changed it for the worse in my opinion. I also disagree with Dr. Kent Hovind on some of his false theology, such as this quote he makes:

"Without a doubt, the foundation upon which our salvation and hope rests is the substitutionary death of Christ on the cross. God created a perfect, sinless earth and placed upon it a perfect, sinless man. This man, Adam, enjoyed close fellowship with his Creator until he sinned and broke the perfect relationship between God and man. Ever since that time, death and degradation have plagued God’s once-perfect creation, and man has been separated from God. However, the shedding of Christ’s innocent blood on the cross can restore man’s fellowship with God and provide him eternal life. Through Adam’s sin, death entered into the world; but through Christ’s sacrifice, salvation is made possible (Romans 5:19). Therein lies the gap theory’s greatest error, the placement of sin and death prior to the existence of Adam. If death existed prior to Adam’s sin, then how could it be the result of sin?"

SOURCE: Creation Today » The Gap Theory Denies the Purpose of the Cross

Remember, Adam merely let sin into the world, but he didn't manufacture sin. Sin was already at his doorstep waiting to enter in. Adam simply opened the door, and it became a Pandora's Box (Greek mythology: a box that Zeus gave to Pandora with instructions that she not open it; she gave in to her curiosity and opened it; all the miseries and evils flew out to afflict mankind). In reality, Satan came to Eve and tempted her to do evil. God planted the tree of knowledge; thus providing their only opportunity to sin. Satan will always tempt us to do evil, but it is God who gives us the opportunity and freewill to do right or wrong. Life is a test. God tested Job. God led the Jews into scorpions, thirst, snakes and hunger in the Wilderness to test them, to see if they would keep His Commandments (Deuteronomy 8:2-3).

Dr. Hovind fails to address the issue of man's sin by itself. We're talking about the human race, not Lucifer or the fallen angels. Romans 5:12 plainly teaches that Adam's sin opened the floodgate of sin and death; which passed upon the world through conceiving children unto this day. Whatever sins that the fallen angels or Lucifer commit prior to mankind has nothing to do with the opportunity given to Adam and Eve to live in paradise for ever. Had Eve known about the serpent and what would happen, she never would have gone near that tree. Albeit, God planted the tree of knowledge to test Adam and Eve. They failed the test. God always tests us, even in His perfect will. God will not tempt us, but He will place us in situation where we have a freewill and the opportunity to do evil if we so choose.

So you see, there was sin prior to mankind; but it was the sin of Lucifer and one-third of the angels who rebelled and fell. Notice that the Bible mentions the angels THAT SINNED...

2nd Peter 2:4, “For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment.”

It appears Biblically that God cast some of the worst angels into Hell right away; but cast others to the earth with Lucifer, for where did these demons come from...

Matthew 8:28-29, “And when he was come to the other side into the country of the Gergesenes, there met him two possessed with devils, coming out of the tombs, exceeding fierce, so that no man might pass by that way. And, behold, they cried out, saying, What have we to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God? art thou come hither to torment us before the time?

So some demons are bound in chains in Hell, reserved for judgment; and yet there are others still free to do evil upon the earth and afflict men's lives. We call them “fallen” angels, but actually they chose to rebel and then they were cast out of Heaven down to the earth. So they didn't fall in that sense. We call them “fallen” because of their fallen moral character.

I don't like the term 'Gap Theory'; because it's a FACT and not a theory. It's best to just call it the 'Gap Principle.' Dr. Kent Hovind accuses proponents of an Old Earth theory of attacking the cross of Calvary. Those are very serious charges indeed!!! Christ died for man's sins, not the angel's sins. Thank God for the gift of His dear Son, Jesus Christ.

Dr. Hovind argues that since Adam's sin brought DEATH into the world (Romans 5:12), then how could there have been a pre-Adamic world where dinosaurs lived and DIED? Lucifer sinned prior to the fall of man in Eden. The fallen angels sinned prior to the creation of man. These truths cannot be denied. If all things were created 6,000 years ago, then there's a problem; because God didn't make a devil. God made Lucifer and Lucifer walked and served in the presence of God until Lucifer was lifted up in sinful pride and haughty arrogance and fell, according to Ezekiel 28:13-19...

Ezekiel 28:13-19, “Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of thy tabrets and of thy pipes was prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created. Thou art the anointed cherub that covereth; and I have set thee so: thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of the stones of fire. Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, till iniquity was found in thee. By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore I will cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God: and I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire. Thine heart was lifted up because of thy beauty, thou hast corrupted thy wisdom by reason of thy brightness: I will cast thee to the ground, I will lay thee before kings, that they may behold thee. Thou hast defiled thy sanctuaries by the multitude of thine iniquities, by the iniquity of thy traffick; therefore will I bring forth a fire from the midst of thee, it shall devour thee, and I will bring thee to ashes upon the earth in the sight of all them that behold thee. All they that know thee among the people shall be astonished at thee: thou shalt be a terror, and never shalt thou be any more.”

Lucifer was cast down to the earth in his anger no doubt. Science plainly teaches that an EVENT wiped out the dinosaurs. Genesis 1:1-2 tells us that the world which God created BECAME void. This would explain the ice age. Something chaotic happened after Genesis 1:1 and the earth was (Hebrew: HAYAH) without form, void and dark. This reality cannot just be ignored in the Scriptures. END


by Pastor Steve Frederick and Pastor Harold Head

       Creationism Science believes that the heavens and the earth were created originally in six twenty four days and that there is no gap between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2.  Creationism Science says that the earth is relatively young, being only 6,000 to 10,000 years old, and that Lucifer rebelled and fell sometime after the six days of creation and before his appearance to Adam and Eve in the Garden. They claim Lucifer's fall could not have occurred before or during the six days of Creation because God said everything was GOOD when He rested on the 7th day. 


They claim that Adam and the original creation of the earth were both in that original creation week, because Jesus said in Matthew 19 that man and woman were created 'in the beginning'. They would say the ICE AGE science speaks of occurred for a few hundred years after Noah's worldwide flood, and was caused directly by the flood itself, and  this ice age left only a livable area near the equator and Bible lands during this time.  They would say Dinosaurs and mammoths, even the frozen ones, existed during the Noah's day, and since Adam brought death into the world, no life existed and died on a Pre-Adamic earth. 


When God used different words such as create, make, and form in Genesis one, these words were used in an interchangeable way, and all meant basically the same thing.  When God told Adam to replenish the earth, it did not mean to 'refill' but simply meant to fill, because before 1650 'replenish' meant 'to fill', and only after 1650 did it take on the meaning of 're-fill'.  Creationism Science says that the fossil record was put in the earth by the flood in Noah's Day and the Grand Canyon was caused by the ICE AGE which resulted after the flood.  Many good Godly men believe the Bible teaches Creationism Science, and it is certainly the most popular interpretation held in Christian circles today. 





Another Theory, known as the 'Gap Theory' is held by many good and Godly Men of the past. While there have been several variations of the Gap Theory over the years, I will present the most commonly held aspects of this theory today. Proponents of this view believe many of the points of Creationism Science, but differ in that they believe there was a gap between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2 in which Lucifer reigned over this Pre-Adamic earth with a host of angels and that his rebellion and fall occurred and God Judged this sin resulting in a chaotic and ruined earth in Genesis 1:2. 


Gap Theorists believe what we see in rest of Genesis 1:3-31 is 'reconstruction' or re-creation of earth to make it livable for man.


(Donald Grey Barnhouse, The Invisible War, page 21-26)


Genesis 1:1-2 "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters."


After many years of careful study, I tend to believe aspects of both of these views are the correct one.  We must be careful to note there are many "Gap Theories" out there, and we must not lump them all together.  Many 'Gap Theory' teachings are not correct, but I believe some the teachings do line up with the Creationism Science. 


In summary, I believe Satan did fall between verses 1 and 2, and was over a civilization of angels on a Pre-Adamite earth which was created in verse one.  We don't know how much time transpired between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2 while Lucifer was on this earth, but it need not be a very long period of time at all, certainly not the billions of years evolutionists tell us about!  I believe the 6 days of Genesis 1:3 thru 1:28 are indeed six 24-hour days of RE-creation.  We see 'Create' (out of nothing) used only 3 times in this chapter, and other times the words 'made' and 'formed' are used, meaning already existing materials are used.


Now to me, this is a hard argument to overcome.  Why is 'Create' only used 3 times, and all the other things already existed but are just 'made to appear'?  I believe all the animals and dinosaurs lived with Adam on the Pre-flood earth and that Adam is only around 6000 years old.  Many Aspects of an 'ICE-AGE' science talks about, I believe, were the result of the World Wide flood of Noah's Day.  Carbon-Dating that shows dinosaurs and animals living millions of years ago is about as reliable as a 3-dollar bill.  Carbon Dating has recently showed freshly killed animals to be thousands or millions of years old! 


Below we will look at aspects of the Gap Theory and show which ones actually fit with Creationism Science, thus giving us the correct Biblical View of Creation, I believe.


Proponents of this 'RECONSTRUCTION' view or GAP THEORY believe that the heavens and the earth were created in Genesis 1:1 at some undisclosed time in the past, and that Lucifer was put in charge of the earth along with a host of his angels.  Due to Lucifer’s rebellion as described in Isaiah 14:12-17 and Ezekiel 28:12-17, God brought Judgment upon the earth and the universe where it became waste and desolate as described in Genesis 1:2.


 Isaiah 14:12-17  How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! 13  For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north:14  I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High. 15  Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit. 16  They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider thee, saying, Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms; 17  That made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed the cities thereof; that opened not the house of his prisoners?


Ezekiel 28:12-17 Son of man, take up a lamentation upon the king of Tyrus, and say unto him, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty.13  Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of thy tabrets and of thy pipes was prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created.14  Thou art the anointed cherub that covereth; and I have set thee so: thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of the stones of fire.15 


Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, till iniquity was found in thee.16  By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore I will cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God: and I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire.17  Thine heart was lifted up because of thy beauty, thou hast corrupted thy wisdom by reason of thy brightness: I will cast thee to the ground, I will lay thee before kings, that they may behold thee.



Was Lucifer on a Pre-Adamic Earth?


Notice from these two passages we see they seem to teach Lucifer was ON THE EARTH when he rebelled.  God evidently placed him on earth to rule it and an angelic civilization.


"That made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed the cities thereof; that opened not the house of his prisoners?" (Isaiah 14:17)

M.R. Dehaan believes Lucifer was placed over an Angelic civilization on this pre-adamic earth complete with 'cities' of angels in this angelic civilization with lush vegetation.

(M.R. Dehaan, GENESIS & EVOLUTION, p26-28)


 Notice Ezekiel 28:13-17 says Lucifer 'was' in the garden of Eden' BEFORE iniquity was found in him. Wouldn't this teach that he was in the Garden of Eden before Adam and Eve,  possibly on a Pre-Adamic earth?

"Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God..... from the day that thou wast created, till iniquity was found in thee."


Some would argue that the Garden of Eden didn't exist until Genesis 2:8 when it says,

"And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed."


Well, wait a minute....Here it says that God planted a Garden in Eden....


That doesn't mean there could not have been a garden in Eden on the Pre-adamic earth too....Remember, if this 'Reconstruction' or 'RE-CREATION' view is correct, God 're-creates' and 'makes to appear again' several these first chapters of Genesis....

 Isaiah 14:12 says that Lucifer declared he would 'ascend above the clouds' in his rebellion to be like God. This would imply he was on the earth BELOW THE CLOUDS would it not?

 How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!13 For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north:14 I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High.


What Caused Chaos in Genesis 1:2?


If this is so, Lucifer's rebellion could have brought God's Judgment upon Lucifer and the Pre-Adamic earth and Universe!

J.Vernon McGee describes the moon’s surface as a good example of this judgment from God in Genesis 1:2.


(From J.Vernon McGee, THRU THE BIBLE, vol 1 Gen-Deut, p13)


 The Bible seems to teach in Isaiah 45:18 that God didn’t create the earth in this state originally, and that something happened later to cause the chaotic state.


(See H.A.Ironside, DR. IRONSIDE'S BIBLE, p25)


 Could the whole universe, including the earth, have looked like the moon and other planets in our solar system, when God brought judgment upon the original earth?


 (See Arthur Pink, GLEANINGS IN GENESIS, p10)


Isaiah 45:18 "For thus saith the LORD that created the heavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it; he hath established it, he created it not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited: I am the LORD; and there is none else."

Gap theorists deduce that if God didn't create the earth in this shape, in vain and without form, something must have happened to cause it to become that way in Genesis 1:2!  It must have been due to Lucifer's fall!


(From Donald Grey Barnhouse, GENESIS, P10)

(W.A.Criswell, Great Doctrines of Bible, vol 7, Angelology, p89)



Are Demons these Fallen Angels?


Are these angels who rebelled with Lucifer on the Pre-Adamic earth now the disembodied spirits we know as 'DEMONS' today?  Many good Bible teachers believe so.


(See Curtis Hutson, DEMONOLOGY OUTLINES, p3A)



Some who hold to a 'Gap Theory', such as Clarence Larkin, that these disembodied spirits of demons today were from the race of "Pre-Adamic Men"....I just don't believe there were men on earth before Adam, because the Bible does say Adam was the FIRST man....I believe, like M.R. Dehaan, that Angels were on the earth with Lucifer in the 'Gap' between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2. 


This brings us to an important note.  Just because one believes there could have been a gap between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2, that doesn't mean that ALL of the teachings of all Gap Theorists are correct.  I believe this is were opponents of the Gap Theory have erred.  In their writings I have studied, opponents take the wildest speculations of Gap Theorists and lump them all together as 'THE GAP THEORY' and use these to ridicule all aspects of the Gap Theory to show how ridiculous it is.





If this GAP THEORY be true, than the “ICE AGE” science talks about could have been the result of this “judgment” in Genesis 1:2. Science says there was a catastrophic Ice Age on earth in the past. The Gap Theorists would also say it is possible for the 'ICE AGE' to have occurred after the FLOOD in Noah's Day as Creation Science claims, whereby the Northern and Southern parts of the continents experienced the "ICE AGE" due to the result of the world wide flood, yet area near the equator and Bible lands was still livable for Noah's ancestors.


The Gap Theory allows for the ICE AGE to have happened at either of these times. If there were animals on this pre-Adamic earth, could this ICE-AGE be the result of God's Judgment upon Lucifer and the earth due to Lucifer's rebellion as described in Ezekiel 28 and Isaiah 14?  Could that Ice Age have instantaneously killed the animals on the Pre-Adamic earth that Lucifer ruled?  Scientists have found a huge mammoth frozen to death with undigested food in stomach eaten ½ hours earlier frozen in ice.  


Could this ICE AGE have done that? The Gap Theory would allow the possibility of animals on this Pre-Adamic earth with Lucifer and the Angelic 'civilization', or it would allow that no animals were on the Pre-Adamic earth, just Lucifer and the angels. I personally tend to believe the frozen mammoth walked on the earth during the days of Noah, and the ICE AGE after the flood caused huge glaciers to slide down from the North and suddenly catch a mammoth off guard and entomb it in its icy grave, thoroughly preserving it.  Dr. Hovind has a very interesting theory that an asteroid or meteor hit the earth to cause this extreme temperature that would freeze a mammoth so quickly. 


His theory makes sense to me. I'm told many such frozen mammoths are found in Alaska and Russia and the meat is so preserved it is served as Mammoth burgers today!  No kidding.  It is certainly possible that the mammoth and Dinosaurs existed only on the re-created earth with Adam and Eve until the flood too, or they could have existed BOTH on the Pre-Adamic Earth with Lucifer AND on the Re-created earth with Adam and Eve. Either possibility fits the Gap Theory. Footprints of humans have been found along side fossils of dinosaurs, showing that dinosaurs lived since Adam's creation, but many species still exist in parts of the world today!





Gap Theorists would say that this phrase found in Genesis 1:2 ‘without form and void’ (TOHU WA BOHU) is found in 3 other instances in the Bible (Isa.34;11; 45:18; Jeremiah.4:23) and it always refers an act of Divine Judgment from God. They would also add that Hebrew wording “the earth WAS without form and void” COULD be read to mean SOMETHING caused this judgment upon the earth, as to read ‘it became that way’. 




 This same Hebrew word is translated as such in Genesis 19:26 where it says “Lot’s wife BECAME a pillar of salt”.


(From E.Schuyler English, PILGRIM STUDY BIBLE, p1 footnotes)


We're not 'Changing' the words of the Bible when we make this distinction!


Now Bible-Believing Christians would protest that one is trying to 'Change' the Words of the King James Bible, just like the New Translations do.....

Now wait just a minute.  That is not what we're doing at all.  The word 'was' can also mean 'became' just like it does today...If I say my wife was would probably be correct to say she BECAME angry because of something that happened earlier!  Correct?  To say one is 'adding to the Word of God' by doing this is just not correct.





When we come to Genesis 1:3-31 we see the ‘RE-CREATION’ or “RESTORATION” of the earth in 6 literal 24-hour days and it is here we have the creation of Adam.


(See William R. Newell, STUDIES IN THE PENTATEUCH, p34)



The Six Days in this first chapter of Genesis, according to Gap Theorists, do not describe the original creation earth, but a 'reconstruction' with a view to it becoming the habitation of man.


(See J. Sidlow Baxter, EXPLORE THE BOOK, p35)

(See Charles Baker, A DISPENSATIONAL THEOLOGY, p168)


 This ‘re-creation’ in Genesis 1:3-31 occurred about 6000 years ago or so, but we don’t know when the heavens and earth were ORIGINALLY created in Genesis 1:1. If this 'gap' between v1 and v2 is correct, there could have been an unknown amount of years between the original creation and this 're-creation' or restoration in Genesis 1:3-31. It could have been millions of years OR just a short amount of time from Lucifer's creation along with the other angels and the fall of Lucifer.


(From G. Campbell Morgan [by Jill Morgan], THIS WAS HIS FAITH, p39)


Opponents would say Gap Theorists are just trying to appease Science and Evolutionists which say the earth is billions of years old.  That is just not true.  If the Gap Theory is true, and there is a gap between Gen. 1:1 & 2, then we just don't know how much times transpired between these verses....and neither does anyone else.





 This theory believes this is why God told Adam in Genesis 1:28 to “REPLENISH” the earth. There had to be something on the earth BEFORE in order for Adam and Eve to 'replenish' it, the Gap Theorists would say.


Genesis 1:28 And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it:


The same word 'replenish' is used in Genesis 9:1  AFTER THE FLOOD when God tells NOAH to 'REPLENISH' the earth.


Genesis 9:1 And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth.


Now opponents would argue, and I believe correctly so, that 'REPLENISH' originally mean 'to fill' and only changed in meaning to 'refill' in the later 1600's.....just like many words have changed meanings today.  I used to remember when 'cool' meant not not, and 'gay' meant to be happy...These words have changed today.  Replenish seems to be an example of that too.  Another Hebrew word meaning to 'fill again' could have been used, but it was not.  I believe the opponents of the Gap Theory are correct here.


A look at the Strong's Concordance does seem to indicate 'REPLENISH' originally meant 'to fill', but this fact actually is mute and does not prove or disprove either the Gap Theory or Creationism Science.  In both cases, with Adam and with Noah, it means to FILL the earth.  But please notice, With Noah it certainly did mean to fill the earth AGAIN.  Would you agree?  'Replenish' the earth COULD be used to support the Gap Theory as well.


So from this passage we see REPLENISH certainly can mean to 'refill' in the Bible. 




I personally believe this is one of the strongest arguments the opponents of the Gap Theory have to deal with.  The fact that the word for CREATE is used only 3 times is Genesis 1 is one of the strongest arguments for the GAP THEORY and its belief that Genesis 1 desribes the 'Re-Creation' of the earth in 6 days!


This Gap theory would explain why ONLY 3 creative acts are found in Genesis chapter 1:


1. In verse 1 we see the word ‘bara’  (create out of nothing) used when the heavens and the earth were originally created.


2. It is again used in Gen. 1:21 in the creation of fowl and fish.


3. It is used again in Genesis 1:24-25 when referring to creation of animal and man.  This word 'BARA' is not used in the other days where the sun, moon, stars were ‘made to appear’ on day 4.  They already existed, having been originally created in Genesis 1:1 before Lucifer’s judgment in Gen. 1:2. 


(from Arno C. Gaebelein, THE ANNOTATED BIBLE, P16,17)


As Merrill Unger notes,  this is NOT the original creation of light in day 4, but it is 'made to appear' or 'become visible' on day 4.

He notes the original perfect condition had been ruined by the sin of the earth's former angelic inhabitants.




Opponents to the Gap Theory would argue that the different words for 'create' and 'make' and 'form' are used interchangeably in the first chapter of Genesis and in Isaiah: 43:7 as an example:

Isa.43:7  "Even every one that is called by my name: for I have CREATED him for my glory, I have FORMED him; yea, I have MADE him."

Here we see all 3 Hebrew words used in the making of man, and opponents of the Gap theory would say here we see all 3 words used interchangeably.


Gap Theorists would say, "Not So!" These 3 words have different meanings and all are correctly used in formation of man.  Man's body was indeed MADE (ASAH) out of pre-existing materials (dust), but the LIFE PRINCIPLE itself, as in animal life, can only be 'CREATED' (BARA) by God. God Also 'FORMED' (YATSA) man, that is, shaped and fashioned man's body,as a potter does the clay.


(Above from John Phillips, EXPLORING GENESIS,p38)


In Conclusion, it would seem to be a pretty strong argument for opponents of the Gap Theory to answer.


Why are only 3 'creative' acts found in the first chapter of Genesis IF these are six days of 'ORIGINAL CREATION'????


Having already looked at some arguments used against the Gap Theory, such as the proper meaning of the word REPLENISH;  the INTERCHANGEABLE use of the words CREATE, MADE, AND FORM; let's now look at.....



 Some MORE arguments used against the Gap Theory:





 Jesus said in Matthew 19:4 “..He which made them in the beginning, made them male and female…”  Some would say this proves there was no gap between Gen.1:1 and 1:2 because Jesus is saying he made Adam and Eve IN THE BEGINNING when he created (bara) heaven and earth.


Good Point.  But could it be that there are different 'beginnings' in the Bible?  Could it be that Jesus was referring to the 'beginning' of this new re-created earth with Adam on it...when he 're-made' the heavens and the earth?


We have several beginnings in the Bible.  We have the beginning the LAW with Moses.  We have the beginning of the Church Age in the book of Acts.  Anyone studying the English Language and its use must admit that there can be different 'beginnings' of different things at different times.  Ah, but opponents would say this says, 'The' Beginning... Well, yes it does, but does that prohibit if from meaning 'the' beginning of this new re-created earth?  I don't think so.


Gap Theorists would reply:  This ‘beginning’ Jesus is talking about here in Matthew refers to the ‘beginning’ of man on earth with Adam and Eve, not necessarily the beginning of heaven and earth in their original creation as in Gen. 1:1. 


Moses also said in Exodus 20:13 For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day:


Gap theorists would reply:  Again, here the Lord is talking about the 'reconstruction' or 'making' of heaven and earth, NOT the original creation in Genesis 1:1.


Why Was Lucifer in the Garden of Eden?


Gap Theorists would say their theory explains WHY Lucifer had access to the Garden of Eden in the first place to tempt Adam and Eve, otherwise WHY would Lucifer be there anyway?


(See James Montgomery Boice, GENESIS, Vol 1, p53)


 He was originally ruler over this earth and dwelt in Eden according to Ezekiel 28:12,13:


 "Son of man, take up a lamentation upon the king of Tyrus, and say unto him, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty.13 Thou HAST BEEN IN EDEN the garden of God;"


Lucifer is called the 'prince of this world' and the 'god of this Age.  He seems to have been given some authority over the earth at sometime.


(How that Lucifer could be Prince of this world and god of this age while Adam was given dominion is looked at in detail further below)



Death Came by Adam


  In 1 Corinthians 15:21 Scripture says that “for since by MAN (Adam) came death, by man (Jesus) came also the resurrection of the dead”.  Some would say there couldn’t have been death of animals on a Pre-Adamic earth on which Lucifer reigned because this verse says death came BY ADAM.  


 Romans 5:12 also implies the same thing, that death didn't come until Adam came.

" Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned:"


1 Corinthians 15:21  For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead.22 For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.

Gap Theorists reply:  In context, these passages of Scripture are referring to why death came to mankind…because of Adam’s sin.  It doesn’t necessarily say animals, etc. from a Pre-Adamic earth couldn’t have died from an ‘Ice age’ type judgment from God due to Lucifer’s rebellion as he was over this earth and an angelic civilization. (Rev.12:4 and Isa.14:17)


This passage in 1 Corinthians is talking about 'death' coming to 'mankind' because of Adam's sin.


But then again, The Gap Theory doesn't insist animals must have lived and died on a Pre-Adamic earth.  It may have just been Lucifer and angels, which of course, as angels, would never die. Some proponents of the Gap Theory, such as Clarence Larkin and Kenneth Wuest, say that Lucifer was over a Pre-Adamic 'man' or 'humanoid' race that existed on the Pre-Adamic earth, and the the demons today are the disembodied spirits of this race. While that is a possibility, I just don't see that. 1 Corinthians 15:45 declares that Adam was the first man.


(From Clarence Larkin, Dispensational Truth, p24)

(From Kenneth Wuest, Prophetic Light in Present Darkness, p66)


It seems best to agree with the earlier assessment that demons today are the disembodied spirits of the angels who who were on the original earth with Lucifer.


(From M.R. Dehaan, THE DEVIL AND HIS ANGELS, p6-8)



The Bible says God's Creation was GOOD,  so Lucifer could not have fallen yet...


In Genesis 1:31 we read that God looked at His creation and declared it was 'GOOD'. Opponents of the Gap Theory say God couldn't have said that if Lucifer's sin and fall caused judgment upon the earth earlier.


Genesis 1:31 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.


Gap Theorist's reply:  When God said 'it was very good' He was referring to the 're-created earth' and IT was good.

Just because Lucifer sinned earlier, that doesn't mean God can't make something 'good' now! 


A Good counterpoint the Gap Theorists make is that in these six days of re-creation, He said it was 'good' after each day EXCEPT on day 2 when he separated the firmament and made the atmosphere!  The reason is because this became Satan's domain after his fall and judgment! 


Ephesians 2:2  Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience:

Ephesians 6:12   For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.

This would seem to imply Lucifer had already fallen and was now in his domain in this atmosphere at that time of Day 2, would it not?


This is a good argument I have yet to hear opponents of the Gap Theory to answer.  "Why did God not say it was 'good' after day 2?



Do the Fossils disprove the Gap Theory?


Six-Day Creationists say the FOSSIL RECORD declares all of the fossils were laid as they are found as a result of Noah's Flood, not because of a Pre-Adamic earth. 


Gap Theorists reply:  Fine.  All of the fossils today could be the result of Noah's worldwide Flood..  The 'Gap Theory' doesn't INSIST animals and fossils HAD TO EXIST ON THE PRE-ADAMIC EARTH.  In fact, I do believe the flood gave us the fossils we have today. 



The Earth is young, not billions of years old


Six-Day Creationists believe Scientist attests to a YOUNG EARTH of only 6000 to 12,000 years old, not millions of years.


Gap Theorists reply:  This very well could be true.  The Gap Theory only says there must have been some time between Gen.1:1 and Gen.1:2 for Lucifer's rebellion. That's all we're saying. That could have happened in a very short period of time from his creation.  It could have been only few months or years, or a much longer period.  The Gap Theory doesn't insist on an earth millions of years old.  Dinosaurs, for example, could have existed in Noah's Day, and on a Pre-Adamic earth, too.  The Gap Theory allows for either.  I tend to personally believe they lived during Noah's Day and after the flood many soon became extinct, but many still exist today, especially in the oceans!  Many have been discovered in the past 100 years, but evolutionists have done a good job of not letting it be advertised very much...because they feel that would harm their precious EVOLUTION THEORY...



The Gap Theory is held to accommodate the evolutionist's view of a EARTH billions of years old and Its Geological Strata


Six-Day Creationists claim Gap Theorists hold to their view to appease evolutionists who say dinosaurs and the earth and Geologic strata are millions of years old.


Gap Theorists reply:  Not so.  Perhaps some of the earlier proponents of the view such Thomas Chalmers in the late 1800's and Scofield in the early 1900's thought their theory would allow for the long period of time that Science seemed to teach in that day, but that wasn't their primary reason to holding to the Gap Theory.  Just like Gap Theorists today, They just Believed it best lines up with Scripture and Science.


I Believe the whole GEOLOGIC COLUMN and STRATA as taught in many Science Books is a BIG HOAX!




No.  Carbon Dating is a bunch of bologna. It has been proven to an unreliable as a 3 dollar bill.  Carbon Dating has been done on freshly killed animals has shown them to be millions of years old!


Another argument I have heard against the Gap Theory is...




2nd Corinthians 4:4 says, "In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them."

Genesis 1:28-30 says, "And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. 29 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. 30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so."

Now look very closely at these verses and what they are saying and what they are not saying....


It says Adam was to have 'dominion' over the animals, fish, and never says to have 'dominion' over the earth....

Adam is to 'subdue' the earth....but it does not say have 'dominion' over the earth...


Now if I wanted to be unkind, I could reply, "Who is 'adding' to the Word of God now?"    This is a charge often leveled at 'Gap Theorists.



The 'Gap Theory' is only of RECENT ORIGIN


Opponents of the Gap Theory say it is only a recent theory in the past couple of hundred years and was not held by the early church.

Answer:  This is just not true either.  As James Montgomery Boice notes, "Arthur C. Custance, who has written an excellent book in the theory's defense, traces it to the certain early Jewish writers,...who even put a 'rebhia' mark in the Masoretic text of the Old Testament to let the reader know there is a break in the narrative between v1 and v 2..


....some of the church fathers REFER to the Gap Theory and even referred to in some ancient Sumerian and Babylonian documents, according to Boice, a very scholarly and reliable writer and Bible Teacher.  He adds that It crops up in the middle ages as well.  It was in Scotland at the beginning of the last century, through the work of the capable pastor and writer Thomas Chalmers, that the idea gained real coherence and visibility....The single most effective teacher of this view was C.I. Scofield, who included it in his notes on Genesis in the astonishingly popular Scofield Reference Bible.  From there it became the almost unquestioned view of Fundamentalism..."


(See James Montgomery Boice, GENESIS, Vol. 1, p50,51)


To say that the Gap Theory was invented in 1814 is just not true.  That is just an incorrect statement.



Gap Theorists are ADDING to the Word of God!


Opponents of the Gap Theory claim that because the good men listed above in the annotations who hold to forms of a 'Gap Theory' and believe there could have been a 'GAP' of time between Genesis 1:1 and Genesis 1:2....that they are 'adding to the Word of God'!!

....a serious charge that will result is dire consequences to that Believer when we get to heaven!


Revelation 22:18,19  "For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book:19 And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book."


Pretty serious charges against good men of God who simply have a different interpretation of a verse in Genesis, are they not?

Are you telling me that because men like M.R. Dehaan and the others mentioned above are 'adding to the Word of God' simply because they believe Lucifer could have fallen between Gen. 1:1,2!


One opponent of the Gap Theory actually mocks anyone who would offer the Gap Theory as at least a possibility to at least consider with a cartoon in which a student says,


"Professor, Why Can't I Just Believe The Bible?"


(From Ken Ham's CLOSING THE GAP, p1 from )


Another well-respected opponent of the Gap Theory argues,





Well, to be truthful, I really don't understand that statement.  To imply that the good men above can not simply 'take the Bible' for what it says and must have a 'GURU' to explain it to just not a fair....or a kind statement.   To imply that these men above needed a 'GURU' to come their well-studied unfortunate.


I believe this attitude is actually doing  more discredit to those who oppose the Gap Theory than they realize.  To imply those who hold to a 'gap' between Gen.1:1,2 are not Bible believers is ludicrous.





This opponent of the Gap Theory even goes on to say " ..the gap theory actually destroys the foundation work of the cross..." (p2, Closing the Gap)  Unbelievable.


Remember The Gap Theory does not insist on a race of people on a Pre-Adamic earth who died..


YOU SEE, see here is an example where an opponent of the Gap Theory, takes a rare suggestion of Larkin and Wuest that a race of men might have lived on a Pre-Adam earth, and they use this to discredit the whole theory! 





A good man told me he knew preachers who were just too proud to admit the Gap Theory was wrong because they hate to admit they had been wrong.


Well that is probably true of preachers in a lot of cases.  But I can honestly say in my case, if someone could convince that the GAP THEORY (as presented in this paper) is wrong and not Scriptural, I would change my view right now.  The fact is, I have looked at every argument against it.  I have used my power of deduction and reasoning from my days at Purdue University, and I, for one, just have found holes in every argument used by the opponents of the Gap Theory.  I have been surprised by the arrogance of some of the folks who disagree with me.  I have seen them almost get mad when I present this paper to them.  I think that is sad.  Good people can disagree and you don't have to slander and belittle them and accuse them of not being 'Bible Believers'!


Good people are on both sides of this controversial issue, and Christians can disagree on this matter, but to make it a matter of fellowship or even slanderous accusation is sad, and we need to be careful to refrain from that.  Both sides agree that God was the one Creating and we did not evolve from some amoeba after a BIG BANG sometime in the distant past!  Both of these views agree the Theory of Organic Evolution as taught in Public Schools is WRONG!  BOTH of these views would say that 'Theistic Evolution' is also wrong.  One side simply believes Lucifer could have fallen between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2, and the other does not.  The Bible says we ought to be ready to give an answer to every man....and anyone who can show where we are looking at this wrong, we would certainly be willing to listen to what you have to present.



In Conclusion


The 'Gap Theory' as described above is the most logical interpretation according to the Bible. We do not take this position just to 'fit' science, we just believe it makes the most sense! Now that is not saying we hold to all of the 'Gap theories' around either...


We have studied both sides of the issue for years and have weighed the Creation Science arguments and they just don't add up to disprove the 'Gap Theory' in our minds.


As James Montgomery Boice says on page 53 of his commentary of Genesis,

"the arguments of the Gap Theory 'have not been taken seriously enough by those who oppose the theory".

We would agree.


Other Earlier works which do a good job of supporting the 'Gap Theory' include: